Mirai e – 未来へ – Due to Future

ほら、 あしもと を みて ごらん (hora, ashimoto o mite goran)

come on, look at your foot steps

これ が あなた の あゆむ みち (kore ga anata no ayumu michi)

that is your life way

ほら、 まえ も みて ごらん (hora, mae mo mite goran)

come on, look at to the front

あれ が あなた の みらい (are ga anata no mirai)

there your future

はは が くれた たくさん の やさしさ (haha ga kureta takusan no yasashisa)

that’s how much mother’s love

あい を いだいて あゆめと ふりかえした (ai o idaite ayumuto furikaeshita)

with your love I see the life coil

あの とき は まだ おさなくて いみなど しらない (ano toki wa mada osanakute iminado shiranai)

that’s when I am too young to understand

そんな わたし の て を にぎり いしょに あゆんで きた (sonna watashi no te o nigiri ishoni ayunde kita)

mother always guide me through the future

ゆめ は いつも そら たかく ある から (yume wa itsumo sora takaku aru kara)

ambition is high that’s sky high

とどかなくて こわいね だけど おいすずけるの (todokanakute kowaine dakedo oisuzukeruno)

if failing that’s poorly, but don’t stop to hope

じぶん の ストリ だから こそ あきら めたくない (jibun no story dakara koso akira metakunai)

fix your step and future, but don’t be down

ふあん に なる と て を にぎり いしょに あゆんできた (fuan ni naru to te o nigiri ishoni ayundekita)

don’t worry and don’t be scare, mother’s pray always be with you

その やさしさ を ときには いやがり (sono yasashisa o tokiniwa iyagari)

I didn’t realize mother’s love before

はなれた はは へ すな を に なれず (hanareta haha he suna o ni narezu)

now, after separated away, I just realized

ほら、 あしもと を みて ごらん (hora, ashimoto o mite goran)

come on, look at your step

これ が あなた の あゆむ みち (kore ga anata no ayumu michi)

that is your life way

ほら、 まえ も みて ごらん (hora, mae mo mite goran)

come on, look at to the front

あれ が あなた の みらい (are ga anata no mirai)

there your future

その やさしさ を ときには いやがり (sono yasashisa o tokiniwa iyagari)

I didn’t realize mother’s love before

はなれた はは へ すな を に なれず (hanareta haha he suna o ni narezu)

now, after separated away, I just realized

ほら、 あしもと を みて ごらん (hora, ashimoto o mite goran)

come on, look at your step

これ が あなた の あゆむ みち (kore ga anata no ayumu michi)

that is your life way

ほら、 まえ も みて ごらん (hora, mae mo mite goran)

come on, look at to the front

あれ が あなた の みらい (are ga anata no mirai)

there your future

みらい へ むかって ゆっくり と あるいて ゆこう (mirai he mukatte yukkuri to aruite yukuu)

slowly but certainly, pick your future up certainly

 

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“Suntiang” (Crown) in Minangkabau

figure 1. goldess and silveress “suntiang kambang”

“Suntiang” is most likely a crown of bride in her wedding in Traditional Wedding of Minangkabau. The big crown, that goldess or silveress color, makes wedding party in Minangkabau is different than other, beside the bride clothes is “baju kurung” and “sarung balapak”. Actually, there are many kind of this crowns or “suntiang”. Like fig 1, for instance, one of them named “suntiang kambang” from Padang Pariaman. The other “suntiang”, those are “suntiang pisang saparak” from Solok Salayo, that’s built without wires; “suntiang pinang bararak” from Koto nan Godang Payakumbuah; “suntiang Mangkuto” from Sungayang (Tanah Datar); “sutiang kipeh” from Kurai Limo Jorong (Bukittinggi); “suntiang Sariantan” from Padang Panjang (where i’m from, Tanah Datar), that has crown; “suntiang Matua Palambaian”, etc.

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figure 2. some kind of “suntiang” and “tingkuluak”

Beside “suntiang”, there are different forms of bride crown, named “tikuluak”. Some kind of “tikuluak”, “tikuluak tanduak” and “tikuluak talakuang”, like fig 2. In this below, I will discuss about the facts of “suntiang”.

“Suntiang Gadang” (big size) has 7 levels or over 11 levels, while “Suntiang Ketek” (small size) has 3 – 5 levels. “Suntiang” is contained with some decorations, from the lowest level contains with some “sarunai” flowers form 3-5 layers; next level contains with some “big” flowers form 3-5 layers; and for the highest level contains with “kambang goyang” (such thing of flower) as the complement of “suntiang”. And something was hanging beside the bride’s cheek is named “kote-kote”. The weigth of “suntiang” is over 3.5kg – 5kg, and the bride has to wears it almost 2 hours or along day.

But now, “suntiang” has modified in order to make easy for the bride. It’s like a ban, so the bride can wears it easily. Because of the glamour, elegant, and unique crown (“suntiang”) make every women in Minangkabau feels like a “Universe Queen” along day, in the wedding day.

figure 3. front and back look

Sources:

“A Little Thing Called Love” – My Version

When I watch a thai movie, “A Little Thing Called Love”. I remember to back, when I was in school. I did every freaky making someone I felt in love to be interested at me. It’s started when I was in the middle school, when I grown up be a teenager.

Someone amazeballs who made me interested, he made me to be not me before. But he was a gangster, not too smart, and loved doing ekskuls (curriculars). He was great at playing basket ball, amazing with his band as a bassis.

In other hand, there was me. A new student, the fatty girl, so ugly, short, and bullied since I was in the elementary school, until I entered this school. Everyone in my new classroom bullied me, “fatty (gapuak)”, since I entered the classroom for the first time. I didn’t through the days without bullied. Even though, I had best friends who always beside me. Then one day, I saw an amazeballs boy.

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Amazeballs boy

Every day I tried to see him with many excuses that caused me meet him. When I knew he was in basket ball team and a member of one of band in school, I tried to be member of basket ball team. I also did fast while we practiced for basket ball match. I did it whole mount, and it worked. I was a fatty girl became a thiny girl.

After that, I learned how to play bass. I asked him to teach me, borrowed his guitar, and I also rented a studio band to learn it, but I couldn’t. One day, when his birthday, I asked him what present he wants. I gave it to him. In the basket ball team, I had some best friends who always beside me. Until I left the middle school I tried to be like other girls, to be more cute, thin, and beautiful, just for him. I was thin, but sick. I feel like a fool.

***

After that, I went in to one of best high school. And I considered that I have to forget him, because I am a high school student in one of the best high school. So, I had to focus with my future that may be better. My mother tried her best to cure me. She did anything to cure me.

Undergoing the high school life, being acquainted with the seniors made me forget the love in the middle school. But it was recured in high school, I fell in love with my senior. Oh my God, why was it repeat again? More rejected, been strongger the feeling. Another amazeballs boy and smart, but he have had a girlfriend. He was active in organizations, in marching band in high school.

marching

I tried my best to be a member of merching band like him, and I did it. I could se him every day in the marching band pratices. I wanted to be active in organization too, but there was a nepotism if I want it. Finally, I gave up. I just could see him, even though his classroom faraway from mine. 16-08-08-05-15-18-629_photo

I went to canteen II, just because I wanted to see him. For one year and half, I have saved my feeling. And then, I gave up too. I tought, I am not match with him, he had someone who much better than me. What was I supposed to do? I just gave up, I turned my mind to achieve going to a college that I wanted so bad. I was sure that I could get more than him.

Real life isn’t perfect as in the movie, no happy ending for me.

“Talempong” – Traditional Musical Instrument of Minangkabau

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Talempong is one of musical instrument from Minangkabau. It’s almost like bonang instrument in gamelan instrument. It can be formed from the brass, but also from woods and rocks. Talempong is looked like circle with diameter 15-17.5 cms, the side below making a hole and the upper making a circle bulge with diameter five cms which is the side you hit. Talempong has different pitch each other. Its sound is from a couple of woods that is hit to its face.

1. How to play “Talempong”

  • Talempongs are put on a stand, that are composed neatly then it can be played while we kneeling on the floor mat. This kinf of talempong is called as sitting talempong (talempong duduk).In the ancient time, this talempong always existed in every “Rumah Gadang” (traditional house of Minangkabau, West Sumatera) that was played by the girls for filling leisure. However, today this talempong is found rarely. This talempong is only exist around borderland like Talang Maun and Lima Puluh Kota District.
  • The second way is called as “talempong pacik” (handful talempong) that is played while hanging it on your tumb. This talempong can be played while sitting down, standing up, or walking. Usually, who play this talempong is the old mans or the young mans. This talempong’s music is a kind of ensemble talempong. Then it has to be played by a group. This group has an effect for the interlocking among the instrument in the ensemble.

Genre of the “talempong pacik” features rithm performance due to a output the form short melodies that always evolve, followed by many other instruments in rithm function like “gandang” and “rapa’i” (single headed frame drum) and brass instruments, “pupuik gadang”, that function as melodies. “Pupuik gadang” or “pupuik liolo” thet has multiple-reed is also considered not too important in the composision of “talempong pacik”; its musical function is not related directly with the interlocking aspects.

Relatively, “talempong pacik” is often considered from the names of the song, but not rarely we can find the same basic of the song between repertoar of “talempong pacik” of one region and another region, while the name and the title of thesong are different. The otherwise, the name and the title of the song are same, while the composision is different, it’s just the same. It happen, because of the artist rule who gived the tradition. In the development process, there is cross of inheritance. For example, the heir gived it to the artist of another region. Sometime, the artists do not know the name of the song, they just know the composision of the music. But because of something, they have to name the music on the order from the current side and the name of the song can be same.

“Gendang” has not the same function in an ensemble of “talempong pacik”. The general differences seem in the rhythm tone of “gendang” with the “talempong” has. Many other group use the “gandang” to confirm interlocking of “talempong’s” performance, while in another group it just for tempo arranger and give accent in a form of constant rhythm.

Like other instrument traditional music of Minangkabau, “talempong pacik” is performed in a custom event. For example in a wedding resepsion and other custom resepsions. For conserving it, usually organized a competition of “talempong pacik” in province level. In Minangkabau, “talempong” musical keep survive as ancestor’s heritage purely. The title of the song was taken from people livelihoods. As a tradisional art, “talempong” has two gamuts that are notated, are 5-6-1-2-3 and 1-2-3-4-5.

As functionally, “talempong” is consisted from a few kind of it :

  • “Talempong duduk” (sitting talempong)

Put on a stand which 14 number of pencons, lined two rows.

talempong

  • “Talempong Pacik” (holding talempong)

Held by the left hand, while the right hand hit it.

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Mens playing “talempong pacik”
  • “Talempong Garetek” (trembling talempong)

For melody.

  • “Talempong Tingkah”

For rhythm.

  • “Talempong Sawut”

For the main tones.

  • “Talempong Batu” (stone talempong)

Those are 6,that arranged neatly on a pad made from bamboo. On each of it, there is a picture of foot, the color is black sallow as a metal that would hit, it will release aloud sound like “talempong” made from metal.

Base on the public story, this “talempong” was found by Syeikh Syamsudin, a theologian. Estimated time was about 12M century, when he dreamed approached by a man in the white cloack, with long beard, and wear turban. The old man in that dream told him that many straggle things in the forest that is overgrown by chamfer and enau leaf. That things could give some good use for children and grandchildren if it is be gathered.

There is a magic in that stone, is before played, it has to be smoked with white incense. If not, then that stone will not make aloud sound like “talempong” but like the sound of hit rock. It will be worse if the hitter does not believe about the mitos, people say he will be cursed.

Source : Minagkabausiana. “Talempong”. http://minangkabausiana.bpa.sumbarprov.go.id/

“Origami”, the Ancient Art of Japanese Folding Paper

The Japanese word “Origami” itself is a compound of two smaller Japanese words: “ori” (root verb “oru”), meaning to fold, and “kami”, meaning paper. Until recently, not all forms of paper folding were grouped under the word origami. Before that, paperfolding for play was known by a variety of names, including “orikata”, “orisue”, “orimono”, “tatamigami” and others. Exactly why “origami” became the common name is not known; it has been suggested that the word was adopted in the kindergartens because the written characters were easier for young children to write. Another theory is that the word “origami” was a direct translation of the German word “Papierfalten”, brought into Japan with the Kindergarten Movement around 1880.

Japanese origami began sometime after Buddhist monks carried paper to Japan during the 6th century. The first Japanese origami is dated from this period and was used for religious ceremonial purposes only, due to the high price of paper.

A reference in a poem by Ihara Saikaku from 1680, which describes the origami butterflies used during Shinto weddings to represent the bride and groom.Samurai warriors are known to have exchanged gifts adorned with noshi, a sort of good luck token made of folded strips of paper, which indicates that origami had become a significant aspect of Japanese ceremony by the Heian period (794–1185).

In 1797 the first known origami book was published in Japan: Senbazuru orikata. There are several origami stories in Japanese culture, such as a story of Abe no Seimei making a paper bird and turning it into a real one.

The earliest evidence of paperfolding in Europe is a picture of a small paper boat in Tractatus de sphaera mundi from 1490. There is also evidence of a cut and folded paper box from 1440. It is possible that paperfolding in the west originated with the Moors much earlier; however, it is not known if it was independently discovered or knowledge of origami came along the silk route.

The modern growth of interest in origami dates to the design in 1954 by Akira Yoshizawa of a notation to indicate how to fold origami models. The Yoshizawa-Randlett system is now used internationally. Today the popularity of origami has given rise to origami societies such as the British Origami Society and OrigamiUSA. The first known origami social group was founded in Zaragoza, Spain, during the 1940s.

The Chinese word for paperfolding is “Zhe Zhi” (摺紙), and some Chinese contend that origami is a historical derivative of Chinese paperfolding.

2. Interesting Origami Facts

Origami is a kind of art that you can trace in 500 AD. This popular art is included as part of Japanese and Chinese culture. This paper folding hypnotizes all people in the world. There are hundreds of shapes that you can create from the folding paper. Check the following post for detail info about origami:

Origami Facts 1: the origin

Let’s find out the origin of Origami. It came from Japan, not China. But Chinese people influenced al lot of the concept of paper folding. You have to know that paper was invented from China for the first time.

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Origami Facts 2: Who brought origami to Japan?

The Buddhist monks introduced the origami art to Japan. The credit for the birthplace of origami was taken by Japanese people. But you can find many parts of oriental countries such as China like to do origami. This art is very popular among kids and adults. Check Japanese culture facts here.

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Origami Facts 3: the largest origami

Many people think that origami must involve with small paper. It is not true. In 1999, the largest crane from paper was created. It was made inside a football stadium with the weight of 1,750 pounds and height of 215 feet.

Origami Facts 4: Akira Naito

Akira Naito was a Japanese person who created the smallest crane paper. He folded a 0.1-by-0.1-mm square of paper to make this crane paper. It is not easy to do it because Akira had to use a pair of tweezers and a microscope.

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Origami Facts 5: 50th anniversary of Hiroshima

There were 25,000 paper cranes created during the 50th anniversary of Hiroshima bombing in Japan. It broke the record as the largest number of origami cranes ever made. People placed the origami cranes on the memorial place of the city.

Origami Facts 6: the oldest origami illustration design

The oldest origami illustration design was traced back in 1490. Johannes di Sacrobesco created the illustration in Venice. He illustrated paper boats floating on water.

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Origami Facts 7: Christian Dior

Christian Dior was inspired by origami when he created his 2007 Haute Couture collection. Actually this art has inspired a lot of sectors such as fashion, architecture and food. If you visit Japan, you can find a lot of buildings created based on origami style.

Origami Facts 8: popularity

The art of origami also influenced the people in Spain. The moors brought the art in 1100 AD to Spain. But the Spanish people did not use it as an art. They used the origami to understand the geometrical and mathematical concepts.

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Origami Facts 9: paper

The popular belief states that origami is created from paper. Actually you can have it made from foil, food, or even coarse cloth.

Origami Facts 10: books and museums

If you want to know the collection of origami masterpieces, you can check them on the museums and books in America and Japan.

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Sources :

‘Batik’ Art, Beautiful Indonesia – Living in Indonesia

Sources

1. What is Batik?

Batik is both an art and a craft, which is becoming more popular and well known in the West as a wonderfully creative medium. The art of decorating cloth in this way, using wax and dye, has been practised for centuries. In Java, Indonesia, batik is part of an ancient tradition, and some of the finest batik cloth in the world is still made there. The word batik originates from the Javanese tik and means to dot.

To make a batik, selected areas of the cloth are blocked out by brushing or drawing hot wax over them, and the cloth is then dyed. The parts covered in wax resist the dye and remain the original colour. This process of waxing and dyeing can be repeated to create more elaborate and colourful designs. After the final dyeing the wax is removed and the cloth is ready for wearing or showing.

Contemporary batik, while owing much to the past, is markedly different from the more traditional and formal styles. For example, the artist may use etching, discharge dyeing, stencils, different tools for waxing and dyeing, wax recipes with different resist values and work with silk, cotton, wool, leather, paper or even wood and ceramics.

Batik is historically the most expressive and subtle of the resist methods. The ever widening range of techniques available offers the artist the opportunity to explore a unique process in a flexible and exciting way.

2. Batik History

Although experts disagree as to the precise origins of batik, samples of dye resistance patterns on cloth can be traced back 1,500 years ago to Egypt and the Middle East. Samples have also been found in Turkey, India, China, Japan and West Africa from past centuries. Although in these countries people were using the technique of dye resisting decoration, within the textile realm, none have developed batik to its present day art form as the highly developed intricate batik found on the island of Java in Indonesia.

King Kertajasa East Java 1294-1309Although there is mention of ‘fabrics highly decorated’ in Dutch transcripts from the 17th century, most scholars believe that the intricate Javanese batik designs would only have been possible after the importation of finely woven imported cloth, which was first imported to Indonesia from India around the 1800s and afterwards from Europe beginning in 1815. Textile patterns can be seen on stone statues that are carved on the walls of ancient Javanese temples such as Prambanan (AD 800), however there is no conclusive evidence that the cloth is batik. It could possibly be a pattern that was produced with weaving techniques and not dying. What is clear is that in the 19th century batik became highly developed and was well ingrained in Javanese cultural life.

Some experts feel that batik was originally reserved as an art form for Javanese royalty. Certainly it’s royal nature was clear as certain patterns were reserved to be worn only by royalty from the Sultan’s palace. Princesses and noble women may have provided the inspiration for the highly refined design sense evident in traditional patterns. It is highly unlikely though that they would be involved in any more than the first wax application. Most likely, the messy work of dyeing and subsequent waxings was left to court artisans who would work under their supervision.

Javanese royalty were known to be great patrons of the arts and provided the support necessary to develop many art forms, such as silver ornamentation, wayang kulit (leather puppets) and gamelan orchestras. In some cases the art forms overlap. The Javanese dalang (puppeteer) not only was responsible for the wayang puppets but was also Tambil Miring Designan important source of batik patterns. Wayang puppets are usually made of goat skin, which is then perforated and painted to create the illusion of clothing on the puppet. Used puppets were often sold to eager ladies who used the puppets as guides for their batik patterns. They would blow charcoal through the holes that define the patterns of clothing on the puppets, in order to copy the intricate designs onto the cloth.

Other scholars disagree that batik was only reserved as an art form for royalty, as they also feel its use was prevalent with the rakyat, the people. It was regarded an important part of a young ladies accomplishment that she be capable of handling a canting (the pen-like instrument used to apply wax to the cloth) with a reasonable amount of skill, certainly as important as cookery and other housewifery arts to Central Javanese women.

3. Selection and Preparation of the Cloth for Batik

Natural materials such as cotton or silk are used for the cloth, so that it can absorb the wax that is applied in the dye resisting process. The fabrics must be of a high thread count (densely woven). It is important that cloth of high quality have this high thread count so that the intricate design qualities of batik can be maintained.

Applying wax with a canting to create Batik

The cloth that is used for batik is washed and boiled in water many times prior to the application of wax so that all traces of starches, lime, chalk and other sizing materials are removed. Prior to the implementation of modern day techniques, the cloth would have been pounded with a wooden mallet or ironed to make it smooth and supple so it could best receive the wax design. With the finer machine-made cotton available today, the pounding or ironing processes can be omitted. Normally men did this step in the batik process.

Strict industry standards differentiate the different qualities of the cloth used today, which include Primissima (the best) and Prima. The cloth quality is often written on the edge of the design. A lesser quality cloth which is often used in Blaco.

4. Batik Design Tools

Although the art form of batik is very intricate, the tools that are used are still very simple. The canting, believed to be a purely Javanese invention, is a small thin wall spouted copper container (sometimes called a wax pen) that is connected to a short bamboo handle. Normally it is approximately 11 cm. in length. The copper container is filled with melted wax and the artisan then uses the canting to draw the design on the cloth.

Canting have different sizes of spouts (numbered to correspond to the size) to achieve varied design effects. The spout can vary from 1 mm in diameter for very fine detailed work to wider spouts used to fill in large design areas. Dots and parallel lines may be drawn with canting that have up to 9 spouts. Sometimes a wad of cotton is fastened over the mouth of the canting or attached to a stick that acts as a brush to fill in very large areas.

For close-up pictures of canting.

Wajan

Wajan is used to melt the wax

The wajan is the container that holds the melted wax. It looks like a small wok. Normally it is made of iron or earthenware. The wajan is placed on a small brick charcoal stove or a spirit burner called an ‘anglo’. The wax is kept in a melted state while the artisan is applying the wax to the cloth.

Wax

Different kinds and qualities of wax are used in batik. Common waxes used for batik consist of a mixture of beeswax, used for its malleability, and paraffin, used for its friability. Resins can be added to increase adhesiveness and animal fats create greater liquidity.

Blowing into the Canting keeps the wax flowing freely

The best waxes are from the Indonesian islands of Timor, Sumbawa and Sumatra; three types of petroleum-based paraffin (white, yellow and black) are used. The amounts mixed are measured in grams and vary according to the design. Wax recipes can be very closely guarded secrets. Varying colors of wax make it possible to disguise different parts of the pattern through the various dying stages. Larger areas of the pattern are filled in with wax that is cheaper quality and the higher quality wax is used on the more intricately detailed sections of the design.

The wax must be kept at the proper temperature. A wax that is too cool will clog the spout of the canting. A wax that is too hot will flow too quickly and be uncontrollable. The artisan will often blow into the spout of the canting before applying wax to the cloth in order to clear the canting of any obstructions.

Cap

Cap utilize copper string to make various designs

Creating batik is a very time consuming craft. To meet growing demands and make the fabric more affordable to the masses, in the mid-19th century the . cap. (copper stamp – pronounced chop) was developed. This invention enabled a higher volume of batik production compared to the traditional method which entailed the tedious application of wax by hand with a canting.

Each cap is a copper block that makes up a design unit. Cap are made of 1.5 cm wide copper stripes that are bent into the shape of the design. Smaller pieces of wire are used for the dots. When complete, the pattern of copper strips is attached to the handle.

The cap must be precisely made. This is especially true if the pattern is to be stamped on both sides of the fabric. It is imperative that both sides of the cap are identical so that pattern will be consistent.

Applying wax with cap

Sometimes cap are welded between two grids like pieces of copper that will make a base for the top and the bottom. The block is cut in half at the center so the pattern on each half is identical. Cap vary in size and shape depending on the pattern they are needed for. It is seldom that a cap will exceed 24 cm in diameter, as this would make the handling too difficult.

Men usually handle the application of wax using cap. A piece of cloth that involves a complicated design could require as many as ten sets of cap. The usage of cap, as opposed to canting, to apply the wax has reduced the amount of time to make a cloth.

Today, batik quality is defined by cap or tulis, the second meaning hand-drawn designs which use a canting, or kombinasi, a combination of the two techniques.

Dyes

Traditional colors for Central Javanese batik were made from natural ingredients and consisted primarily of beige, blue, brown and black.

The oldest color that was used in traditional batik making was blue. The color was made from the leaves of the Indigo plant. The leaves were mixed with molasses sugar and lime and left to stand overnight. Sometimes sap from the Tinggi tree was added to act as a fixing agent. Lighter blue was achieved by leaving the cloth in the dye bath for short periods of time. For darker colors, the cloth would be left in the dye bath for days and may have been submerged up to 8 – 10 times a day.

In traditional batik, the second color applied was a brown color called soga. The color could range from light yellow to a dark brown. The dye came from the bark of the Soga tree. Another color that was traditionally used was a dark red color called mengkuda. This dye was created from the leaves of the Morinda Citrifolia.

The final hue depended on how long the cloth was soaked in the dye bath and how often it was dipped. Skilled artisans can create many variations of these traditional colors. Aside from blue, green would be achieved by mixing blue with yellow; purple was obtained by mixing blue and red. The soga brown color mixed with indigo would produce a dark blue-black color.

4.1 Design Process

The outline of the pattern is blocked out onto the cloth, traditionally with charcoal or graphite. Traditional batik designs utilize patterns handed down over the generations. It is very seldom that an artisan is so skilled that he can work from memory and would not need to draw an outline of the pattern before applying the wax. Often designs are traced from stencils or patterns called pola. Another method of tracing a pattern onto a cloth is by laying the cloth on a glass table that is illuminated from below which casts a shadow of the pattern onto the cloth. The shadow is then traced with a pencil. In large batik factories today, men usually are in charge of drawing the patterns onto the cloth. Click here to see the step-by-step process of making batik.

Waxing

Applying wax with a Canting

Once the design is drawn out onto the cloth it is then ready to be waxed. Wax is applied to the cloth over the areas of the design that the artisan wishes to remain the original color of the cloth. Normally this is white or cream.

Female workers sit on a low stool or on a mat to apply the wax with a canting. The fabric that they are working on is draped over light bamboo frames called gawangan to allow the freshly applied wax to cool and harden. The wax is heated in the wajan until it is of the desired consistency. The artisan then dips her canting into the wax to fill the bowl of the canting.

Artisans use the wax to retrace the pencil outline on the fabric. A small drop cloth is kept on the woman. s lap to protect her from hot dripping wax. The stem of the canting is held with the right hand in a horizontal position to prevent any accidental spillage, which greatly reduces the value of the final cloth. The left hand is placed behind the fabric for support. The spout does not touch the fabric, but it held just above the area the artisan is working on. To ensure the pattern is well defined, batik is waxed on both sides. True tulis batik is reversible, as the pattern should be identical on both sides.

The most experienced artisans normally do first waxings. Filling in of large areas may be entrusted to less experienced artisans. Mistakes are very difficult to correct. If wax is accidentally spilt on the cloth, the artisan will try to remove the unwanted wax by sponging it with hot water. Then a heated iron rod with a curved end is used to try and lift off the remaining wax. Spilled wax can never be completely removed so it is imperative that the artisans are very careful.

Applying wax with a copper cap

If the cap method is utilized, this procedure is normally done by men. The cap are dipped into melted wax. Just under the surface of the melted wax is a folded cloth approximately 30 centimeters square. When this cloth is saturated with wax it acts like a stamp pad. The cap is pressed into the fabric until the design side of the cap is coated with wax. The saturated cap is then stamped onto the fabric, leaving the design of the cap. This process is repeated until the entire cloth is covered. Often cap and canting methods are combined on the same piece of cloth.

Better quality batik may be waxed utilizing canting in one part of Indonesia and then sent to another part of Indonesia where the cap part of the process is completed. On better quality cap fabric great care is taken to match the pattern exactly. Lower grade batik is characterized by overlapping lines or lightened colored lines indicating the cap was not applied correctly.

Dyeing

After the initial wax has been applied, the fabric is ready for the first dye bath. Traditionally dying was done in earthenware tubs. Today most batik factories use large concrete vats. Above the vats are ropes with pulleys that the fabric is draped over after it has been dipped into the dye bath.

The waxed fabric is immersed in the dye bath of the first color. The amount of time it is left in the bath determines the hue of the color; darker colors require longer periods or numerous immersions. The fabric is then put into a cold water bath to harden the wax.

Dye Bath

When the desired color has been achieved and the fabric has dried, wax is reapplied over the areas that the artisan wishes to maintain the first dye color or another color at a later stage in the dying process.

When an area that has been covered with wax previously needs to be exposed so that it can be dyed, the applied wax is scraped away with a small knife. The area is then sponged with hot water and resized with rice starch before it is re-immersed in the subsequent dye bath.

If a marble effect is desired, the wax is intentionally cracked before being placed in the dye bath. The dye seeps into the tiny cracks that create the fine lines that are characteristic of batik. Traditionally, cracks were a sign of inferior cloth especially on indigo color batik. On brown batik, however, the marble effect was accepted.

The number of colors in batik represents how many times it was immersed in the dye bath and how many times wax had to be applied and removed. A multicolored batik represents a lot more work that a single or two-color piece. Numerous dye processes are usually reflected in the price of the cloth. Nowadays, chemical dyes have pretty much replaced traditional dyes, so colors are endless and much more liberally used.

5. Special Treatments to the Batik Cloth

Prada or Gold Cloth

For special occasions, batik was formerly decorated with gold lead or gold dust. This cloth is known as Prada cloth. Gold leaf was used in the Jogjakarta and Surakarta area. The Central Javanese used gold dust to decorate their Prada cloth. It was applied to the fabric using a handmade glue consisting of egg white or linseed oil and yellow earth. The gold would remain on the cloth even after it had been washed. The gold could follow the design of the cloth or could take on its own design. Older batiks could be given a new look by applying gold to them. Gold decorated cloth is still made today; however, gold paint has replaced gold dust and leaf.

Batik Designs

Although there are thousands of different batik designs, particular designs have traditionally been associated with traditional festivals and specific religious ceremonies. Previously, it was thought that certain cloth had mystical powers to ward off ill fortune, while other pieces could bring good luck.

Wedding Batik

Certain batik designs are reserved for brides and bridegrooms as well as their families. Other designs are reserved for the Sultan and his family or their attendants. A person’s rank could be determined by the pattern of the batik he/she wore.

In general, there are two categories of batik design: geometric motifs (which tend to be the earlier designs) and free form designs, which are based on stylized patterns of natural forms or imitations of a woven texture. Nitik is the most famous design illustrating this effect.

Certain areas are known for a predominance of certain designs. Central Javanese designs are influenced by traditional patterns and colors. Batik from the north coast of Java, near Pekalongan and Cirebon, have been greatly influenced by Chinese culture and effect brighter colors and more intricate flower and cloud designs.

High fashion designs drawn on silk are very popular with wealthy Indonesians. These exceptionally high-quality pieces can take months to create and costs hundreds of dollars.

Kawung

Kawung DesignKawung is another very old design consisting of intersecting circles, known in Java since at least the thirteenth century. This design has appeared carved into the walls of many temples throughout Java such as Prambanan near Jogjakarta and Kediri in East Java. For many years, this pattern was reserved for the royal court of the Sultan of Jogjakarta. The circles are sometimes embellished inside with two or more small crosses or other ornaments such as intersecting lines or dots. It has been suggested that the ovals might represent flora such as the fruit of the kapok (silk cotton) tree or the aren (sugar palm).

 

Ceplok

Ceplok DesignCeplok is a general name for a whole series of geometric designs based on squares, rhombs, circles, stars, etc. Although fundamentally geometric, ceplok can also represent abstractions and stylization of flowers, buds, seeds and even animals. Variations in color intensity can create illusions of depth and the overall effect is not unlike medallion patterns seen on Turkish tribal rugs. The Indonesian population is largely Muslim, a religion that forbids the portrayal of animal and human forms in a realistic manner. To get around this prohibition, the batik worker does not attempt to express this matter in a realistic form. A single element of the form is chosen and then that element is repeated again and again in the pattern.

 

Parang

Parang DesignParang was once used exclusively by the royal courts of Central Java. It has several suggested meanings such as ‘rugged rock’, ‘knife pattern’ or ‘broken blade’. The Parang design consists of slanting rows of thick knife-like segments running in parallel diagonal bands. Parang usually alternated with narrower bands in a darker contrasting color. These darker bands contain another design element, a line of lozenge-shaped motifs call mlinjon. There are many variations of this basic striped pattern with its elegant sweeping lines, with over forty parang designs recorded. The most famous is the ‘Parang Rusak’ which in its most classical form consisting of rows of softly folded parang. This motif also appears in media other than batik, including woodcarving and as ornamentation on gamelan musical instruments.

Washing Batik

Harsh chemical detergents, dryers and drying of fabrics in the sun may fade the colors in batik. Traditionally dyed batiks should be washed in soap for sensitive fabrics, such as Woolite, Silky or Halus. Fine batik in Indonesia is washed with the lerak fruit which can be purchased at most traditional markets. A bottled version of this detergent is also available at batik stores. Be sure to line dry batik in a shady area and not in direct sunlight.

6. Batik fact, Information, Picture

Batik (bətēk´), method of decorating fabrics practiced for centuries by the natives of Indonesia. It consists of applying a design to the surface of the cloth by using melted wax. The material is then dipped in cool vegetable dye; the portions protected by the wax do not receive the dye, and when the wax is removed in hot water the previously covered areas display a light pattern on the colored ground. Remains of clothing found in Java indicate that the same or similar patterns have been in use for about 1,000 years and are handed down in families. Certain designs were traditionally reserved for royalty and high officials. Motifs are geometric or are based on conventionalized natural objects. Cotton cloth is generally used, and some silk. Batik was first brought into Europe by Dutch traders. In the 19th cent., Western artisans adopted the art.

Sources :

Tari Piriang (Plate Dance) – Minangkabau, West Sumatera

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“Tari Piriang” performance at an special event, by UKM-ITB

Tari Piring (Plate Dance), or Tari Piriang in the Minangkabau language, is one of many traditional dances from West Sumatra province. This particular dance uses two plates tightly held by the dancers on the palm of their hands featuring quick, swaying motions. Tinging sounds occur when a dancer’s ringed finger comes in contact with the plate during movements.

Tari piring was originally a ritual performed by the locals immediately after a big harvest as gratitude to the Gods. This specific ritual was conducted by bringing offerings, such as food, presented on plates while at the same time performing these dance-like movements while walking. With the arrival of Islam, the tari piring tradition ceased to be a ritual practiced by the Minangkabau to thank the Gods but instead became a dance-like performance for various events. Upon the completion of a tari piring dance, plates are thrown to the floor and the dancers continue to perform atop the broken piece of plates.

Minangkabau’s traditional music instruments, the Talempong and the Saluang, commonly accompany tari piriang performances. The total number of dancers must be an odd number, ranging form three to seven performers. The combination of the music’s fast tempo and quick dance movements is dynamic and exhilarating to watch. The dancers wear bright color costumes, mostly of red and golden yellow colors.

1. History of “Tari Piring” in Minagkabau

Once upon a time, Minangkabau people still adored Gods, they believed that the Gods had given the overflow harvest and then protected them from the danger. Therefore the girl dancers would give their harvest to the Gods, put it on the plate. They would wear beautiful traditional clothing and behaved gently for making a formal appearance to the Gods. The offerings was brought to front of the Gods while they danced, contorted the plate for showing their skill. This was the beginning of the tari piriang (plate dance) in Minangkabau, it was since about 800 years ago.

This dance was developing till regime Sriwijaya. But after Sriwijaya down by Majapahit, many dancers moved to Melayu as refugee of Sriwijaya. Then in Minagkabau, happened the change of tari piriang because of entering Islam in the region. They didn’t need making offerings for the Gods. Therefore tari piriang, today, for entertaining the honor guest. Then this dance also as a offerings for welcoming guest at wedding party.

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“Tari Piriang” performance at a wedding party for welcoming guest, by UKM-ITB

2. Characteristic of “Tari Piriang”

As we knew, that the plate for bringing offerings for the Gods and now it’s banned. So, the plate is empty or put a flashed candle on it.

Like the history, this dance only  danced by dancer/s that odd amount (like a dancer, three or seven dancers, and so on). Usually this dance is danced until 10-15 minutes because during the dance there will be a ritual of obeisance for the king or the bridegroom. The dancer have to wear beautiful traditional clothing, especially in bright red and gold pattern that believed as carrier of lucky and riches. Accompanist music like, talempong, gandang, saluang, rapa’i, tasa, sarunai, and bansi. Today, the music added bass and keyboard for making contemporary music.

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Traditional and modern musical instrument Minangkabau, by UKM-ITB

Gandang, saluang, and talempong

3. Throwing Plate and Stampede the Plate

This is the moment, where your heart beat is going to faster or stop beating. The plate will be threw to the height, then make it be pieces and pedal on it while continue dancing.

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the dancer is dancing on the pieces of plate, by GoSumatera.com

It show happiness for the harvest that is overflow. Magically, there is no injury on the feet of the dancer even if they don’t wear sandals.

“Tari piriang” has been showed in many nation festivals, even in international festivals or event of traditional culture. Like “Malam Indonesia : Love Indonesia, Love Japan” in Kyoto, Jepang 2013.

How beautiful Minagkabau! You can feel it as a son of Minagkabau, you can learn it wherever you are. You can find it every where as I can.

Sources :

  • Sejarah Asal Usul Tari Piring serta Perkembangannya, by Kumpulan Sejarah, http://www.portalsejarah.com/
  • Tari Piring : Dance Tradition from West Sumatra, by Kris Tjokro, http://www.tnol.asia/arts-culture/
  • Tari Piring, Seni Budaya Khas Sumatera Barat, by Ika Wahyuni, http://www.gosumatra.com/